This guide also takes. It's a. matter of interpretation. This statistic is actually a.
Albert Mehrabian's. Moreover the 9. 3% non- verbal. Many body language experts and. So while body language statistics vary according to situation. On many. occasions we form a strong view about a new person before they speak a single. The metaphor which describes the eyes of two lovers meeting across a. It's based on scientific.
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And more usefully, what might we regard it. Appropriately and interestingly the Oxford Business English. Dictionary emphasizes the sense that body language can be used as a tool.
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Much of this early interest. John Bulwer's Natural History. Hand published in 1. Gilbert Austin's. Chironomia in 1. 80. Ethology began as. It became properly established during the.
Where ethology considers animal evolution and communications, it. Ethologists have progressively applied.
Austrian. zoologist and 1. Nobel Prizewinner Konrad Lorenz (1. Desmond Morris, author of The Naked Ape, discussed below. Richard Dawkins (b.
Ethology, like psychology, is an. His. book Body Language was among the first to bring the subject to a mainstream. All except one. of Julius Fast's cited works are from the 1. Morris, a British zoologist. His work remains a popular. Morris's popularity in.
Physiognomy refers to facial features and expressions which were/are. The. ancient roots of this concept demonstrate that while body language itself is a. The word was devised in the late 1. Edward Twitchell Hall, an American anthropologist. The word is Hall's. This is not to be confused with the.
Neither word seems to have. To. emphasise the shifting debate he cited for example. Darwin's belief that human facial expressions were similar among. Is this nature or. Other body language is certainly not. It's in. our nature to do this, if only to a small degree in some folk. The need to understand what.
The winners had not only. Shepherds, horse- riders and animal trainers throughout time and. Monty Roberts, the. Horse Whisperer' is a good example. Were these factors not in our genes, we would not.
This is perhaps a feature of evolutionary survival, since. Females. might not be so physically vulnerable in modern times, but their body language. Thus, women tend to be able to employ body language (for sending and. Women tend to have more empathic sensitivity than men, which. Aside from gender. This book. incidentally initially far outsold The Origin of Species, such was its wide. Ekman's work notably.
Western. media and images, and essentially proved that Darwin was right - i. Perhaps infinitely. Hartland and Tosh, 2. This dramatically accelerated the research and understanding. Look for combinations of.
Older women. relatively, are less energetic, adopt more modest postures, and are prevented. Politicians and. manipulative salespeople come to mind for some reason. Ask yourself. . What is causing the negative feelings giving rise to the negative. Body language should not be used alone for. This guide is based on 'Western World' and.
North European behaviours. What may be 'obvious' in one culture can mean. More signals. and meanings will be added. Far too far away to be able to see the detail of a. This is an absolutely awesome capability when you think about it.
This relates to right and left. This is analysed in. NLP theory developed in the. Under certain circumstances 'creating' can mean fabrication or lying. Looking right when stating facts does not necessarily mean.
Depending on context this can indicate lying, but in. Looking right and down indicates accessing feelings, which. Recalling and then stating 'facts'. Whether. the 'facts' (memories) are correct is another matter. Left downward looking. Context particularly- and other signals - are important for. Related to accessing memory in the.
A reassuring sign if signalled when. Looking sideways suggests sounds. Widened. eyes with raised eyebrows can otherwise be due to shock, but aside from this. In women. especially widened eyes tend to increase attractiveness, which is believed by.
If the signal is accompanied by a long pronounced blink, this tends to. Darkness causes pupils. So too, for some reason does seeing something appealing or. The cause of the attraction depends on the situation. In the case. of sexual attraction the effect can be mutual - dilated pupils tend to be more. Resist the temptation to imagine that everyone you. Normal human blink rate is considered.
Blink rate. can increase to up to a hundred times a minute. Blink rate is not a reliable. Infrequent blink rate can mean. An infrequent blink rate is probably due to boredom if the eyes are.
Infrequent blink rate can also be accompanied by signals. Quickly raising and lowering the. It is a common signal of greeting and. Fear and surprise are also signalled by the eyebrow flash, in. Much fuss was made in May 2.
George W Bush winked at the Queen. The fuss was made because a wink is quite an. It is strange that a non- contact wink can carry. A wink is given additional spice if accompanied. Not many people can carry it off.
Additionally - and. Bush used it - a wink can signal a shared. As a general rule.
This typically indicates suppressed displeasure or forced agreement. Stretched across face in a straight. The smiler has a secret they are not going to share. Can also be a rejection signal. The jaw is dropped lower than in a natural smile, the act of. Head tilted sideways and downwards so.
Bear in mind that people cry for reasons of. Laughter deserves a section in its own. In terms of body language genuine.
Natural laughter can. The physiology of laughter is. Endorphins are released. Pain and stress reduces. Also. vulnerabilities show and can become more visible because people's guard drops. Unnatural laughter is often a signal. Artificial laughter is a signal of cooperation and a wish to.
One of many signals suggesting tension. Otherwise however.
Smoking obviously becomes habitual and. Remember that next time you chew the end of your. As if holding the words in the mouth. Can also indicate anxiousness or. Or quite differently can indicate upset.
The tongue extends briefly and. The gesture. may be extremely subtle. An extreme version may be accompanied by a wrinkling. Often an unconscious gesture of. The gesture is reminiscent of the 'speak no evil' wise. The action can be observed very clearly in young children when they. Extreme versions of the.
Nail- biting is an inwardly- redirected. Later. nail- biting becomes reinforced as a comforting habit, again typically prompted. Stress in this context is an outcome. Stress doesn't. cause nail- biting; nail- biting is the outward demonstration of stress. The. cause of the stress can be various things (stressors). See the stress article for more detail about.
All of these. movements have meanings, which given some thought about other signals can be. Nodding is confusingly and.
Head nodding when. As with. all body language signals you must look for clusters of signals rather than. Look at the focus of eyes to check the validity of slow. Head tilting is thought. Exposing the neck is also a sign of trust. Head forward in the direction of a.
The rule also applies to a forward. Head. forward and upright is different to head tilted downward. Head tilted downwards towards a person.
Obvious of course, but often ignored or missed where the. The strength of movement of the head. This is an immensely. Head down when responding to criticism is a. Lowering the head is a sign of loss. Hence the expressions such as 'don't let your head drop'. Head down also tends to cause shoulders and upper back to to slump.
Very similar to the 'head held high'. Holding the chin up naturally alters the angle of the head backwards.
A pronounced raised chin does other interesting things to the. These combined effects make. An exposed neck is also a sign of confidence. Nodding is relevant to what is being said. Smiles. and other expressions are relevant too. The head may tilt sideways. Mirroring of expressions may occur.
The eyes remain sharply focused on the. This can be due to various causes, ranging from severe. Crossed arms is a commonly exhibited signal by subordinates feeling.
People also cross arms when. Self- hugging is an attempt to reassure unhappy or.
Women use this gesture. Men tend not. to. It's a 'barrier' protective signal, and also self- hugging. As demonstrated by members of the.
Another 'barrier' protective. Another 'barrier' protective signal.
Another 'barrier' protective. Another 'barrier' protective. Another 'barrier' protective.
One arm rests on the table across the. Another 'barrier' protective signal. Another 'barrier' protective. They are extremely expressive and flexible tools. Studying hand body language.
The section below focuses on. Western behaviour. Much applies elsewhere, but avoid assuming that it all. A common gesture with various meanings around. In some situations this can indicate confidence (such as to enable. An easily faked gesture to convey.
Outward open forearms or whole arms are more extreme versions of the. Relaxed hands are more likely to be. Where the lower arm moves across the. The hand is empty, but figuratively. The signal is one of 'weighing'. Although easy to fake, the underlying.
Hand. on heart can be proactive, as when a salesman tries to convince a buyer, or. Whatever, the sender of this. Pointing at a person is very. Commonly adults do this to young people.
Adult. to adult it is generally unacceptable and tends to indicate a lack of social. The finger is thought to represent a gun, or pointed weapon. Strongly. associated with anger, directed at another person.
An exception to the. Stop it/do as you are told, or else. The action is like pressing a button.
Like when a computer or elevator won't work, as if. The hand is used like a guillotine, as. One or two clenched fists can indicate. Logically a clenched fist prepares the hand (and. Very brainy folk use this gesture. In this gesture only the.
Fingers are spread and. Alternating the positions.
Try it - it's very strange. Very brainy people. The action is one of suppressing or holding down a rising.